hiking essentials

The Modern Hiking Essentials

The 10 hiking essentials are the recommended key survival tools that hikers should bring with them on every hike. The original 10 essentials date back the 1930s. Here's my take on the modern hiking essentials and how to use them.

Don’t care about the why’s of my hiking essentials and just want to see my gear list? Click here.

Why the Hiking Essentials?

In your mind’s eye, rewind to the 1930s. There’s no internet, no REI, no Amazon Prime, no Walmart. You want to go hiking. You probably know you to bring some food and water. But what if there’s an emergency?  What do you need to bring then?

early hikers with hiking essentials
Early hikers at what’s now Mount Rainier National Park, sporting some of the items that would become the hiking essentials, and some that are not, like the hiking stick.

The Mountaineers, a Washington State based outdoors club, came up with the 10 hiking essentials to help educate and enable hikers to be safe in the outdoors. That was in the 1930s, and since then the 10 essentials have evolved and been adapted by other outdoors groups like the Boy Scouts.

My Take on the Hiking Essentials

Today technology has made hiking much easier. Smartphones allow you to map and overlay weather in real time. LED bulbs are bright and last thousands of hours. There’s a lot of great technology out there that’s helpful. That is, until it fails. So when I pack the 10 essentials, I generally include two options, a high-tech version that works great, and an old-school version that works if the high tech version fails.

Two is one and one is none. – Navy SEAL Saying

Hiking Essentials for An Emergency

The hiking essentials are not just for everyday hiking, but are also designed to help you survive in an emergency. That’s another reason I bring two versions of each essential with me.

hiking essentials
I carry all my hiking essentials in my pack. If I need to carry more gear based on conditions, I’ll bring a bigger pack.

If you do find yourself in an emergency situation or get lost, your general workflow will be:

  1. Stop and calm down.
  2. Use you navigation tools to figure out where you are and try to get to where you need to be.
  3. If you are injured or are lost, find a safe spot of land to wait. Ideally it’s in the clear so you can signal rescuers.
  4. Sart signaling rescuers.
  5. Use your hiking essentials to build a shelter, take care of your body, and get comfortable.
  6. Wait for rescuers. Don’t move. Wait where you are.

The hiking gear that’s in your emergency bucket can change based on your outdoors skills. If you’re an experienced outdoorsman who knows primitive skills, you might be able to survive with nothing. Check out the show Naked and Afraid to see what this looks like in practice. If you’re not adapt at outdoors skills, it’s easy enough just to pack the hiking gear that will make surviving in the outdoors possible. I know some primitive skills, but I still bring lots of gear. The more survival tools you have, the better your chances of survival.

The reality of getting rescued is that you’ll probably have to wait. Even if you have a backcountry satellite distress beacon (PLB), it might take search and rescue up to a week to actually get to you. Things like location and weather can throw a wrench into a speedy rescue.

Here are my hiking essentials.


Navigation and maps might be the most important hiking essential. If you know where you are, you should know how to get home. If you’re lost, you’re in trouble. In this case I actually use several devices.

hiking essential navigation
Using a GPS is easy, but know what to do when your battery dies.

Sun Protection

This is pretty straightforward. Use sunscreen and SPF protected clothing to avoid sunburn (and sun poisoning). I also carry a tarp and cord in my pack so I can erect a shade shelter if need be.


I always bring extra layers in my pack. Clothing is so lightweight and compact-able these days, it’s not a hassle. An easy way to do this is to get pants that convert to shorts. Then use a long-sleeve hiking shirt where you can roll up the sleeves. Bring a fleece layer to top that, and then a lightweight rain shell to cover. If you have all that on, it’ll be like having a winter jacket. A small beanie is light, small, and keeps you warm.

If you’re hiking in the mountains, realize that the temperature can be very different at the summit than at the base.

hiking essential weather protection
Ice on Mt. Washington, NH, on the 4th of July. At the beginning of the hike it was 80F and sunny. Being prepared to handle the elements can mean the difference between a happy hike and dying of exposure.


If you can see at night, you can get things done (like building a shelter). Illumination also helps signal rescuers. Here’s what I bring:

And don’t forget to pack extra batteries. Practice changing your batteries in the dark.

First-aid Supplies

I just bring a pre-packaged first-aid kit along with some Tenacious Tape if I need to seal a major gash. It helps to take a NOLS First Aid class to help yourself and others.

first aid kit
I updated my first aid kit with some other items and the helpful laminated first aid field guide that you get in class.


You can use fire for light, warmth, a rescue signal, to cook food, and more. I try to have a lot of ways to create fire.

You can also learn the primitive skill of creating a fire with a bow-drill. It’s empowering to know that you can start a fire with some raw materials.

primitive skills class
One of the things you learn at the Tracker survival school is how to start a fire without matches. After the classroom demonstration, you get to do it on your own with help from the instructor. You learn how to make fire, shelter, find food, and in general, feel very comfortable living in the outdoors.

Just make sure you keep the fire under control. People trying to signal a rescue have started forest fires before.

Repair Kit and Tools

If you need to build a shelter, find food, etc., you’ll need some tools.


This is a no-brainer. Bring more food than you think you’ll need. Plan on eating and keeping your fuel stores topped up during a hike, even if you aren’t hungry. But if you do get in a survival situation, don’t stress. In general, a human can go about 3 weeks without any food. You won’t feel great, but it isn’t life threatening.

Focus on bringing dense foods with you. Things like nuts and nut bars are great because they pack a lot of calories into a small package.

cris hazzard eats during hike
Make sure you eat regularly and keep your fuel stores up. You’ll make better decisions. When hungry, the hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach, and ghrelin has a negative effect on both decision making and impulse control, report scientists.


cris hazzard drinks water on hike
A University of Connecticut study found that even mild dehydration can lead to an increased perception of task difficulty and lower concentration levels. Stay hydrated to hike safely.

Water is more important than food. You can make it about 4 days without water, less in extreme heat conditions. Take water seriously. I try to take at least 50% more water than I think I need. My hydration daypack has a big water reservoir, and there’s room to pack cheap 1.5 liter bottles from the supermarket. When my reservoir is empty, I dump these into it.

I also carry a small water purifier so that I can pump water from streams, ponds, or puddles. My clear contractor bags allow me to create a solar still if I need to.

water refill
It’s simple enough to pick up some 1.5L bottles at a gas station, put them in your pack, and then refill your 3L bladder with them.

Emergency Shelter

You can splurge on a lightweight tent shelter, but I find an inexpensive tent footprint does the job fine. The tent footprints tend to be pretty durable. I use it with cordage and sticks to create a basic lean-to. I also have an inexpensive bivy sack that I can use as a sleeping back. If you want extra warmth, you can stuff it with leaves or pine needles and wedge yourself in.

lean to shelter
Here’s a simple summer survival shelter designed with some wind protection. With a tarp, you have many shelter options.
survival shelter
Here’s a shelter I built in the woods of NJ. As you can see, most of it is just using the materials you have to create something that protects you. I still have to add the leaves to the top of the frame.

Signaling Gear (My Addition)

Signaling for a rescue is just as important as the other items. The sooner someone knows to look for you, the better your chances of survival. I carry a lot of options here.

Bonus Tips to Help You Stay Alive

Here are some other tips that will help you stay safe and alive out on the trail.

The Modern Hiking Essentials Video

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