hiking essentials

The Modern Hiking Essentials

In This Guide
  • Why the ten essentials?
  • The ten essentials updated for today’s hiker
  • Gear recommendations for the ten essentials
  • Tips on using the ten essentials and surviving

The ten essentials are the ten pieces of gear that every hiker should bring out when them on the trail, whether on a short hike or multi-month through hike. The ten essentials were invented in the 1930s to help people enjoy the outdoors safely. It was an era before helicopter evacuations and satellite beacons; the ten essentials were designed to help folks stay alive outside. Today the ten essentials still hold true at their core, but can be improved upon with the help of new gear and technology. Here’s my take on the hiking essentials; this is what I take on every hike and what you should too.

If you just want to see the gear that I use, you can see a complete, current list here.

Modern Ten Hiking Essentials

  1. Navigation Tools – Electronic & Paper
  2. Hydration – Bladder & Portable Filter
  3. Nutrition – Dense Superfoods
  4. Sun Protection – Sunscreen
  5. Insulation – Shell & Fleece
  6. Illumination – Headlamp
  7. First-Aid
  8. Fire – Fire Starter, Magnifying Glass, Outdoors Lighter
  9. Repair Gear
  10. Shelter – Emergency Bivy
  11. Bonus Essential – Signalling Device

Improving on the Ten Hiking Essentials

hiking essentials
I carry all my hiking essentials in my pack. If I need to carry more gear based on conditions, I’ll bring a bigger pack.

Two is one and one is none. – Navy SEAL Saying

Today technology has made hiking much easier. Smartphones allow you to map and overlay weather in real time. LED bulbs are bright and last thousands of hours. There’s a lot of great technology out there that’s helpful. That is, until it fails. So when I pack the ten essentials, I generally include two options, a high-tech version that works great, and an old-school version that works if the high tech version fails. The small size and low weight of hiking gear today makes this possible.

Navigation

hiking essential navigation
Using a GPS is easy, but know what to do when your battery dies.

Navigation and maps might be the most important hiking essential. If you know where you are, you should know how to get home. If you’re lost, you’re in trouble. In this case I actually use several devices.

Sun Protection

This is pretty straightforward. Use sunscreen and SPF protected clothing to avoid sunburn (and sun poisoning). I also carry a tarp and cord in my pack so I can erect a shade shelter if need be.

Sunglasses come in handy when I’m hiking in very bright environments that are pretty common in snow, mountains, and desert conditions. Snow blindness, or photokeratitis, is sun-burn for your eyes, and can happen without snow. I’ve had it; it makes it very hard to see in general. If you’re in bright conditions, sunglasses are a smart move, even if you don’t think you need them.

Insulation

hiking essential weather protection
Ice on Mt. Washington, NH, on the 4th of July. At the beginning of the hike it was 80F and sunny. Being prepared to handle the elements can mean the difference between a happy hike and dying of exposure.

I always bring extra layers in my pack. Clothing is so lightweight and compact-able these days, it’s not a hassle. An easy way to do this is to get pants that convert to shorts. Then use a long-sleeve hiking shirt where you can roll up the sleeves. Bring a fleece layer to top that, and then a lightweight rain shell to cover. If you have all that on, it’ll be like having a winter jacket. A small beanie is light, small, and keeps you warm.

Ask yourself what the worse conditions could be on the hike, and then pack for that. And if you’re in the desert or at altitude, remember that it can get very cold at night.

If you’re hiking in the mountains, realize that the temperature can be very different at the summit than at the base.

Illumination

If you can see at night, you can get things done (like building a shelter). Illumination also helps signal rescuers. Here’s what I bring:

I specifically mention LED illumination because LED bulbs can last hundreds of hours on a small charge, unlike a traditional incandescent bulb.

If you find yourself in an emergency signaling situation, use the strobe function found on many headlamps to save power and make yourself more visible to rescuers. Practice using strobe mode at home; chances are you won’t have the manual with you out in the backcountry when you need it.

And don’t forget to pack extra batteries. Practice changing your batteries in the dark.

First-aid Supplies

first aid kit
I updated my first aid kit with some other items and the helpful laminated first aid field guide that you get in class.

I have a pre-packaged first-aid kit that I’ve supplemented with some Tenacious Tape if I need to seal a major gash.

It helps to take a NOLS First Aid class; it will teach you how to actually use a first-aid kit and potentially save a life. Another benefit of the class is that they show you how you can customize a first-aid kit.

Most of the time that I’ve pulled out my first-aid kit, it’s been to help another hiker. It’s been handier than I’ve imagined.

Fire

primitive skills class
One of the things you learn at the Tracker survival school is how to start a fire without matches. After the classroom demonstration, you get to do it on your own with help from the instructor. You learn how to make fire, shelter, find food, and in general, feel very comfortable living in the outdoors. Photo Anjuli Ayer

You can use fire for light, warmth, a rescue signal, to cook food, and more. I try to have a lot of ways to create fire because each tool is small and light.

You can also learn the primitive skill of creating a fire with a bow-drill. It’s empowering to know that you can start a fire with some raw materials.

Just make sure you keep the fire under control. People trying to signal a rescue with fire have started forest fires that burned thousands of acres.

Repair Kit and Tools

If you need to build a shelter, find food, etc., you’ll need some tools. I look at this hiking essential as a general pool of things that I might need to solve a variety of problems, not just repair something.

Nutrition

cris hazzard eats during hike
Make sure you eat regularly and keep your fuel stores up. You’ll make better decisions. When hungry, the hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach, and ghrelin has a negative effect on both decision making and impulse control, report scientists.

This is a no-brainer. Bring more food than you think you’ll need. Plan on eating and keeping your fuel stores topped up during a hike, even if you aren’t hungry. But if you do get in a survival situation, don’t stress. In general, a human can go about 3 weeks without any food. You won’t feel great, but it isn’t life-threatening.

Focus on bringing dense foods with you. Things like nuts and nut bars are great because they pack a lot of calories into a small package.

Hydration

cris hazzard drinks water on hike
A University of Connecticut study found that even mild dehydration can lead to an increased perception of task difficulty and lower concentration levels. Stay hydrated to hike safely.

Water is more important than food. You can make it about 4 days without water, less in extreme heat conditions. Take water seriously. I try to take at least 50% more water than I think I need. My hydration daypack has a big water reservoir, and there’s room to pack cheap 1.5 liter bottles from the supermarket. When my reservoir is empty, I dump these into it.

I also carry a small water purifier so that I can pump water from streams, ponds, or puddles. My clear contractor bags allow me to create a solar still if I need to.

water refill
It’s simple enough to pick up some 1.5L bottles at a gas station, put them in your pack, and then refill your 3L bladder with them.

Emergency Shelter

You can splurge on a lightweight tent shelter, but I find an inexpensive tent footprint does the job fine. The tent footprints tend to be pretty durable. I use it with cordage and sticks to create a basic lean-to. I also have an inexpensive bivy sack that I can use as a sleeping back. If you want extra warmth, you can stuff it with leaves or pine needles and wedge yourself in.

lean to shelter
Here’s a simple summer survival shelter designed with some wind protection. With a tarp, you have many shelter options. Photo Ak70g2
survival shelter
Here’s a shelter I built in the woods of NJ. As you can see, most of it is just using the materials you have to create something that protects you. I still have to add the leaves to the top of the frame.

Signaling Device (My Addition)

Garmin inreach review

Signaling for a rescue is just as important as the other items. The sooner someone knows to look for you, the better your chances of survival. I carry a lot of options here.

The Hiking Essentials in My Pack

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Putting the Ten Essentials Together

Most of the ten hiking essentials can be used on a normal, everyday hike. For example, you’ll obviously drink water. But what happens when you are in an emergency situation?

If you do find yourself in an emergency situation or get lost, your general workflow will be:

  1. Stop and calm down.
  2. Use your navigation tools to figure out where you are and try to get to where you need to be.
  3. If you are injured or are lost, find a safe spot of land to wait. Ideally it’s in the clear so you can signal rescuers.
  4. Sart signaling rescuers.
  5. Use your hiking essentials to build a shelter, take care of your body, and get comfortable.
  6. Wait for rescuers. Don’t move. Wait where you are.

The hiking gear that’s in your emergency bucket can change based on your outdoors skills. If you’re an experienced outdoorsman who knows primitive skills, you might be able to survive with nothing. Check out the show Naked and Afraid to see what this looks like in practice. If you’re not adapt at outdoors skills, it’s easy enough just to pack the hiking gear that will make surviving in the outdoors possible. I know some primitive skills, but I still bring lots of gear. The more survival tools you have, the better your chances of survival.

The reality of getting rescued is that you’ll probably have to wait. Even if you have a backcountry satellite distress beacon (PLB), it might take search and rescue up to a week to actually get to you. Things like location and weather can throw a wrench into a speedy rescue.

Bonus Tips to Help You Stay Alive

Here are some other tips that will help you stay safe and alive out on the trail.

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